By Brenda B. Houser, Mary M. Farrell, Eric R. Force, James A. Briscoe, Leslie J. Cox, and John Wiens, 1994
Arizona's rich mineral endowment, in combination with periodic fluctuations in metals markets, has ensured that Arizona is also richly endowed with historic mining camps and ghost towns. Some mining camps had only a brief existence around the turn of the century, others survived until WW II, and still others have been alive and relatively prosperous for more than a century (although not with mining as the sole economic base). On this trip we will visit four mining camps: Kentucky Camp, Harshaw, Washington Camp-Duquesne, and Tombstone (fig. 1).
Kentucky Camp flourished briefly from 1904 to 1906 as the headquarters site for an engineering endeavor designed to bring water from the Santa Rita Mountains for gold placer mining in the Greaterville district After the project failed, the land was bought for taxes by a rancher who used the buildings at Kentucky Camp as the ranch headquarters until the 1960's. Thus, the adobe structures here are relatively intact compared to those at other camps.
Harshaw and Washington Camp-Duquesne, both on the east side of the Patagonia Mountains, were camps associated with mines that produced high-grade lead-silver ore. The mineralized deposits here were known to the Jesuits and were worked by the Spanish and Mexicans in the 1800's. Harshaw and Washington Camp-Duquesne date from about 1880. The camps were ghost towns by the 195O's, but exploration continues. The old adobe power house building near Duquesne contains core drilled by Simplot and Rosario in the 1960's and 1970's. (* The Duquesne area [800+ acres] including the old townsite/power house is all privately owned. The mines and buildings are not open to exploration. All the old core samples have been removed from the power house and it is being renovated into a home. The miners cabin has already been renovated.)
Nearly everyone has heard of Tombstone because of the popularization of some of the town's more notorious early residents, such as the Earps, the Clantons, and Doc Holliday. Mines in the Tombstone district produced chiefly silver, in addition to lesser amounts of gold, lead, zinc, copper, and manganese. Although most mines closed around 1922, the town still survives with tourism as its financial base.
The structures at most of the mining camps are disintegrating rapidly, particularly those made of adobe. At Mowry (a mine and camp about halfway between Harshaw and Washington Camp-Duquesne), for example, Way (1966) said there were half a dozen buildings of frame and adobe and showed photographs of several adobe buildings. There are only a few foundations and crumbling adobe walls there now. Once the roof is gone from an adobe structure, each rain dissolves a bit more of the bricks until, in a few years, nothing is left but a low mound of dirt. Two sections of walls of adobe buildings at Duquesne collapsed as a result of the record rainfall of the winter of 1992-93. The wood frame buildings fall prey to vandals, recyclers, and collectors.
The cultivated plants that were planted by the residents of the mining camps are proving in some cases to be more durable than the buildings. Fruit trees in the valley at Harshaw, where the water table is fairly high, have done quite well with no care for the past 20 years or more. A few introduced cultivars, such as yellow bird-of-paradise and tree of heaven, are even spreading by seed or roots. Spearmint (Mentha spicata), naturalized at Paymaster Spring near Mowry, may have been planted by the miners as early as 1860.
There are a number of dates important to the history of mining in Arizona:
1853 Gadsden Purchase. Prior to this, the land south of the Gila River was part of Sonora, Mexico.
1861 Beginning of the Civil War. All the Federal troops were withdrawn from Arizona, making it unsafe to be out alone or in small groups because of Apache raids. Pumpelly's account of the hazards of being a miner in Arizona at this time is excellent (Wallace, 1965).
1872 Apache Peace Commission under Vincent Colyer. This first Apache peace made existence a little less precarious for miners, but there was still the threat of Apache raids until about 1876.
1881-84 Railroads completed in southeastern Arizona. Because of shipping costs before this, ore had to be worth at least $100 per ton to be worth mining.
1893 Demonetization of silver. Prior to this time, the price of silver was about $1 per ounce. Afterward, the price dropped sharply (table I).
1914-17 World War I. Sharp upswing in metals prices.
1921 Collapse of metals prices. Please be cautioned that in reviewing references and preparing the road log, we noted a number of discrepancies among reference texts as to dates and versions of events. Because this road log is not intended to be a scholarly historical treatise, the date or version was chosen that was known to be correct, or that seemed to be the most likely, or
that was the consensus of several sources. For the most part, we did not search newspaper files, court records, or other original sources to resolve discrepancies. A particularly blatant example of historical misinformation is given by a carved wooden sign at the old post office in Pearce, Ariz., the site of the Commonwealth Mine (not on this field trip). According to the sign, "... Pearce saw its demise when the mine flooded, killing most of the miners. Their families left soon after, leaving behind all but their basic necessities ..." This story of a mine flood has no basis in fact. As recently as 1975, the 800-ft level (the deepest level) of the Commonwealth Mine was dry and accessible according to John M. Guilbert, University of Arizona (oral commun., 1992). One can only surmise that the person who took the trouble to carve this misinformation in wood either believed the story or perhaps thought it was the sort of thing that tourists wanted to hear.
Table 1: The price of silver. (Tenney, 1929, p.1S4)
Year Price of Silver (dollars)
ROAD LOG AND GEOLOGIC AND HISTORIC HIGHLIGHTS
Depart from Holiday Inn on Congress Street, Tucson, Ariz. Go west on Congress Street to interstate 10 (1-10).
0.0 Junction of Congress Street and 1-10. Take 1-10 East to Arizona State Highway (Sm 83 (exit 281, Sonoita Road).
22.8 Junction of 1-10 and SH 83. Take SH 83 south toward Sonoita.
28.8 Empire Mountains to the east
EMPIRE MlNING DISTRICT
The Empire mining district is to the southeast in the Empire Mountains (fig. 1). Deposits of argentiferous lead and copper ores were first discovered in the Empire district in the late 1870's, but mining became economically feasible only after the railroad was built in the early 1880's. The principal camps in the district were California Camp, Total Wreck, and Copper Camp. The highest and most rugged part of the Empire Mountains consists of generally southeast-dipping Paleozoic carbonate rocks and quartzite tbat were intruded by early and late Laramide - age granitoid plutons. Precambrian granitoid rocks are exposed on the north flank of the Empire Mountains. Sedimentary rocks of the Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Group surround the Empire Mountains and
overlap both the Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks (Finne11, 1974; Drewes, 1980).
The mineralization of the Empire district is probably genetically associated with intrusion of Laramide age granitoid rocks into the Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The mineral deposits are chiefly oxidized silver-lead and copper minerals contained in vein and replacement deposits. Some mines in the district produced small amounts of gold.
For a time, Total Wreck was the leading silver bullion producer in the Arizona Territory. The name "Total Wreck" came from the description of the site of the first silver mining claims on the Richmond lode in the Empire Mountains, given by John T. Dillon, who discovered the deposits in 1879. He said the site was "...a big ledge, but a total Wreck, the whole hillside being covered with big boulders of quartz which have broken off the ledge and rolled down." (Granger, 1960, p. 284). By 1883 the camp had 200 inhabitants and the Tucson Weekly Star reported that there were five saloons, three general stores, a butcher shop, a shoemaker shop, and from eight to ten Chinese laundries. By 1884, the mines had produced about $500,000 worth of silver bullion. Mining continued into the 1890's, but has been nsporadic since the early 1900's, with peaks during World War I and in the late 1920's. In 1926 the mill tailing pile was leased and more than 1,000 tons of low-grade material was shipped as flux (Tenney, 1929). The district was worked for zinc in the 1940's, but there has been little activity since 1950. Keith (1974) gave the total estimated and recorded production of the Empire district as more than 34,000 tons of ore containing 206,400 ounces of silver, 744 ounces of gold, 8,334 tons of lead, 372 tons of zinc, 172 tons of copper, 76 tons of molybdenum, and a minor amount of tungsten. The total value of production from the district has been about $1,178,000.
34.9 Road to Rosemont Junction and Camp, 2.5 mi to the southwest. Rosemont Camp, the site of the Rosemont Mining and Smelting Company, was a thriving village in the Helvetia district in the 1880's and 1890's (fig. 1). There were about 150 residents, a school, a hotel, and some stores (Sherman and Sherman, 1969). The claims and smelter were acquired by Lewisohn Brothers of New York City in 1896. Subsequently, the mines were worked on an exploratory basis until 1907, when finally they were closed and the smelter was shut down. After that, Rosemont was more or less deserted (Schrader, 1915).
Rosemont Camp Coordinates: 31º 49.502' N, 110º 44.089' W
Rosemont Junction Coordinates: 31º 50.037' N, 110º 43.969' W
There are at present two houses at Rosemont - one at Rosemont Junction and the other at Rosemont Camp - but it is not known if they date to the days of the mining camp or not. At Rosemont Junction, the remnants of a poured concrete foundation and porch indicate that there was at least one substantial dwelling here. A slag dump apparently marks the location of the smelter, and there are a number of level places nearby along the creek where there were probably various structures.
40.0 Junction of SH 83 and Greaterville Road. Placer gold was discovered on the east side of the Santa Rita Mountains in 1874 by a prospector named Smith. Smith was soon joined by his partners from New Mexico, and a moderate-sized gold rush ensued (Schrader, 1915). Some large nuggets were found, and by 1878 there were about 400 Mexicans and nearly 100 Americans in the new community of Greaterville (fig. 1). There were several dance halls, saloons, and stores; the jail was a round hole dug in the ground into which prisoners were lowered by rope (Sherman and Sherman, 1969). Schrader (1915) reported that by 1909 Greaterville had a store, a post office, and tri-weekly mail service from Helvetia (on the west side of the Santa Rita Mountains) by way of Rosemont.
The Greaterville placer district suffered from a problem common to many southwestern placer deposits - lack of water. Placers were worked by rocker and long tom (cradles or troughs of various lengths for washing gold-bearing material). Mexican entrepreneurs brought water 4 mi from Gardner Canyon in canvas and goatskin bags on burros, charging about 3 cents a gallon for it.
The camp gradually declined as the richer gravels were worked out and attacks by Apaches continued to be a threat. From 1873 to 1875 the Greaterville placers yielded about 5250,000 worth of gold. but by 1883 the yearly yield had dropped to $12,000. The total production from the placers through 1929 was about $680,000 worth of gold (Tenney, 1929).
The search for lode deposits in the Greaterville district was disappointing. A few lodes were located and some rich pockets were mined. but there was little production from them. The Conglomerate Mine, which contains lead and silver-gold ore in limestone and adjacent granite, was the most important mine in the area, but it is 2 mi south of the placer area and was probably not a source of gold for the placers (Tenney, 1929). L.J. Cox discusses (this volume) the geology of the Greaterville district in relation to the source of the placer gold.
There was a revival of interest in the Greaterville placers between 1900 and 1905. when there were several attempts to bring water in by ditch and pipeline. The center for one of these operations was Kentucky Camp in Kentucky Gulch (STOP 1 of this field trip). From 1905 to about 1930, various companies attempted to work the gravels with a steam shovel, drag-lines, and a dredge; all failed because of insufficient water and poor sampling (Tenney, 1929). The current (early 1990's) price of gold ($300-400 per ounce) assures that nearly every weekend a number of people will be working the gravels in Ophir Gulch just west of the site of Greaterville.
Greaterville Coordinates: 31º 45.837' N, 110º 45.004' W
43.7 Junction of SH 83 and Gardner Canyon Road (Forest Road (FR) 92). Tum right on Gardner Canyon Road.
44.5 Junction FR 92 and FR 163. Take FR 163 to the right and continue on FR 163 to FR 4113.
48.0 Junction FR 163 and FR 4113. Take FR 4113 to the right.
49.2 Go left at Y-intersection.
49.3 STOP 1. Park at locked gate and walk about 0.2 mi down the hill to Kentucky Camp, a U.S. Forest Service Stabilization Project.
KENTUCKY CAMP AND THE GREATERVILLE PLACER DISTRICT
Once the scene of a grandiose engineering scheme and optimistic activity, Kentucky Camp, a small gold mining camp in southeastern Arizona, fell into lonely abandonment for decades. But recently this camp in the Coronado National Forest (fig. I) has come alive once more as several groups have joined with the Forest to preserve the site for the future.
More than a century ago, the Greaterville gold placers on the east slope of the Santa Rita Mountains were alive with activity. Gold had been discovered in 1874 in the Greaterville mining district, which proved to be the largest and richest placer deposit in southern Arizona. In 1875, an Arizona Citizen article reported that one ". . . Horace Arden, not noted for working imprudently bard ...'" was recovering an ounce of gold a day, even though he had to pack the pay dirt to water for washing. Such success stories brought more than 200 miners to the Greaterville mining district in the 1870's. But by the end of the 1880's the Greaterville placers were "worked out," all the easily obtainable gold had been recovered, and the population began to decline. One claim named "Burro Placer" is suggestive of the major difficulty in mining the Greaterville placers-lack of waler. Most gulches flowed only intermittently, and water for the placer washing was packed in on mules and burros from wells in the vicinity.
At the tum of the century, a millionaire and an engineer teamed up in an effort to solve the mining area's incessant water shortage. In 1904, a mining engineer from San Jose named James Stetson conceived a grand scheme to channel runoff from the Santa Ritas' spring snowmelt into a reservoir that would hold enough water to last ten months. With that, he could keep a mine operating. Stetson convinced George McAvery, also of San Jose, to invest in the plan, and together they formed the Santa Rita Water and Mining Company to make it work. From 1904 to 1906, the buildings at Kentucky Camp served as the headquarters for dam builders, ditch diggers, and miners. They employed 40 men in building Kentucky Camp and in constructing miles of pipeline.
In spite of optimistic reports on their preliminary work, the Santa Rita Water and Mining Company failed. Tragedy struck in 1905, the day before a meeting with stockholders, when Stetson was killed in a fall from a third story hotel window in Tucson. McAvery died shortly thereafter. Arguments among McAvery's heirs kept the estate tied up and, although other partners tried to keep the operation going, it soon died. The buildings and land at Kentucky Camp were sold for back taxes at a sheriff's auction in 1906. An attorney bought the property, and his family used Kentucky Camp as a base for cattle ranching until the 1960's.
Thanks to the care bestowed on the buildings by the ranchers, the site was in much better condition than most turn-of-tbe-century mining camps in the area, with standing adobe buildings (fig. 2), pieces of the pipeline, and the hummocky landscape of placering. But decades of abandonment and weathering, vandals, and recyclers had taken their ton on the site by the time it was acquired by the Coronado National Forest, in 1989. One structure bad collapsed, and leaky roofs threatened the remaining four buildings. Broken glass, rusty nails, and crumbling walls seemed to invite lawsuits as much as they did inquisitive visitors. The buildings that remain at Kentucky Camp were built about 1904. The largest was probably used as an office by the Santa Rita Water and Mining Company (fig. 2). Later, it was the main ranch house. The iris beds at the west corner of the building probably date from its occupation as a ranch house. The small building behind was used to process the gold ore. A large barn lies in ruins opposite a small house where Stetson may have lived, and another small house lies at the far end of the site (fig. 3).
Because many of the old mining ghost towns have been completely obliterated or are inaccessible to the public, Kentucky Camp appears to offer an excellent opportunity for interpretation. As a development engendered and abandoned with the changing fortunes of a large engineering project. Kentucky Camp illustrates the crucial role water has played in mining this arid region of Arizona. Furthermore, the site is only a little more than an hour from Tucson, with most of the drive along an Arizona scenic highway.
The U.S. Forest Service (Coronado National Forest) contracted with Ryden and Associates, of Phoenix, to prepare a historic-building analysis. The basis of a site stabilization plan, the analysis describes and ranks the steps needed to preserve the buildings and to restore them for future use. The U.S. Forest Service will restore the buildings to the way they appeared in the mining era. Until Kentucky Camp is restored, you should keep certain things in mind. The buildings are old and deteriorated, so care should be taken when inside - floorboards may give way, and some ceiling boards hang low. And please do not remove anything from Kentucky Camp. Although they may appear old, broken, and abandoned, all the artifacts will be useful in reconstructing life in the camp.
In the spring of 1991, Passport in Time, a volunteer group, helped document architectural and archaeological features and drew room plans. With patience and care, scattered trash and fragments of lumber were transformed into clues about the doors, windows, porches, and other features that once graced the buildings. Their work aided not only in preservation efforts, but also allowed the initial cleanup of safety hazards.
The Nogales Ranger District fire crew, with an archaeologist who specializes in historic buildings, made adobe bricks to rebuild a collapsed wall, and replaced wooden beams that bad been "salvaged" during Kentucky Camp's abandonment. The fire crew re-roofed the standing buildings with wooden shingles acquired through a cooperative agreement with the Young Riders film company, which shoots episodes of the television series in the vicinity.
Public interpretation requires public facilities, such as toilets and picnic tables, so an interdisciplinary team has begun an interpretive plan to guide future design and to ensure that developments do not detract from the historic setting. The interpretive plan outlines U.S. Forest Service priorities, identifies research needs and possible interfaces with other interpretive opportunities, targets audiences, and develops themes for future booklets, living history, tours, and trails. The gradual phasing in of projects will allow some interpretation to begin soon, while options for accomplishing long-term goals can be explored. Tours led by the U.S. Forest Service and outreach have generated a pool of other interested volunteers, and the Nogales Ranger District is committed to pursuing the preservation of Kentucky Camp for future generations.
Twenty-one volunteers donated more than 500 hrs in a Passport in Time project in June 1992, and a Friends of Kentucky Camp group is forming (1992) in order to collect donations and coordinate volunteer activities.
Kentucky Camp Coordinates: 31º 44.653' N, 110º 44.504' W
Return to SH 83.
54.6 Tum right (south) toward Sonoita.
58.7 Junction of SH 83 and SH 82 in Sonoita. Turn right on SH 82 toward Patagonia. Sonoita was established in 1882 on the newly built Mexico and Arizona Railroad, which was completed through the Sonoita Creek Valley to Nogales in 1884. The old railroad grade can be seen alongside the road between Sonoita and Patagonia. The name Sonoita comes from the Tobono O'Odham word meaning "place where corn will grow" (Granger, 1960).
61.6 The site of Fort Crittenden is about 0.2 mi north of the road. Camp (Fort) Crittenden was established March 4, 1867, on a hill overlooking the old site of Fort Buchanan. It was named for General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden, military commander for southern Arizona from 1867 to 1868. The camp was abandoned in the summer of 1872 because of unhealthy conditions, probably malaria (Granger, 1960).
62.2 The former site of Fort Buchanan is near here, about 0.1 mi north of the road (fig. 1). In 1856, Major Enoch Steen was ordered to set up a permanent military post in Tucson to protect the settlers of southern Arizona. Steen was unimpressed with the "miserable huts" he found in Tucson and the lack of grass and grain in the area for horses, so instead he chose a site for the post (called Camp Moore) 60 mi to the south up the Santa Cruz River Valley (fig. 1). When his superiors in Santa Fe ordered him to relocate the post closer to Tucson, Steen replied that in the Sonoita Valley he was protecting miners and ranchers, whereas in Tucson he would be protecting only "whiskey peddlers." Nevertheless, another site for the post was chosen 20 mi to the northeast of Camp Moore, and construction on Fort Buchanan was begun in the summer of 1857 (although Tucson residents pointed out in a petition that the new site was even farther from Tucson than the old site had been).
Morale was low at Fort Buchanan because of poor accommodations, lack of troop rotation, Apache raids, and the prevalence of malaria that had its source in nearby swamps. Rafael Pumpelly, a mining engineer who visited the post, described it as follows (Wallace, 1965, p. 37):
"This fort ... consisted simply of a few adobe houses, scattered in a straggling manner over a considerable area, and without even a stockade defense. The Apaches could, and frequently did, prowl about the very doors of the different houses. No officer thought of going from one house to another at night without holding himself in readiness with a cocked pistol."
The fort was burned and abandoned July 21, 1861, when the soldiers were withdrawn to help repel the Confederates on the Rio Grande (Wagoner, 1975).
71.0 Junction of SH 82 and the road to Harshaw and Lochiel at the Patagonia post office just west of Sonoita Creek. Turn left, go one block, and turn left again onto McKeown Ave. Patagonia was established in 1898, when Rollin Rice Richardson decided to move the town of Crittenden about 3 mi south to a marshy area that he owned at the present site of Patagonia (fig. 1). Richardson, a rancher, had previously owned much of the land in the area and had bought out the squatters at old Camp Crittenden. (There must have been both a military Camp Crittenden and a town named Crittenden about 5 mi apart.) Richardson had wanted to call his town Rollin, but the residents of the new town chose the name ''Patagonia'' from the name of the mountains
to the south. Because the petition for a post office had to be signed by the residents, Richardson had little say in the matter of the town name (Granger, 1960).
In 1909, Patagonia was an active mining center having about 200 residents. Two daily passenger and mail trains stopped there, and daily stage and mail service was maintained between Patagonia and Harshaw, Mowry, Washington Camp, and Duquesne to the south (Schrader, 1915). Nowadays, ranchers, retirees, hunters, and bird watchers provide much of the economic base for Patagonia.
We are in the Harshaw mining district, which comprises the northeastern quarter of the Patagonia Mountains and extends about 7 mi south of the town of Patagonia. The principal camps of the district were Harshaw, World's Fair, Wieland, Elevation, Standard, and Thunder. Early mines in the Harshaw district produced large amounts of high-grade lead-silver ore. The ore is usually in vein deposits in Mesozoic granitoid and silicic volcanic rocks that were intruded by younger rocks (Schrader, 1915).
Through 1972 the total estimated and recorded production of base and precious metals from the 21 mines of the district was 1.3 million tons of ore containing about 86 thousand tons of zinc, 72 thousand tons of lead, 3 thousand tons of copper, 9.2 million ounces of silver, and 4.3 thousand ounces of gold for a total value of $41.5 million (Keith, 1975).
Figure 4 shows the geology of the trip route through the Harshaw district and the Patagonia district to the south. The eastern two-thirds of the Harshaw district is underlain by lower Paleocene silicic to intermediate volcanic rocks intruded by upper Paleocene granitoid stocks at Red Mountain and Saddle Mountain, 4 mi to the east. The western one-third, which includes much of the mineralized area, is underlain by granitoid stocks and chiefly silicic volcanic rocks of Mesozoic age. A small exposure of Paleozoic carbonate rocks and limestone and conglomerate of the Lower Crecaceous Bisbee Group extends up into the southern part of the district. The north-northwest trending Harshaw Creek fault (fig. 4) forms part of the boundary between the eastern and western terranes. Simons (1974) presented evidence that the Harshaw Creek fault has at least 4 mi of left-lateral displacement.
74.3 According to local tradition, the smaller rock on the northwest side of the large rock on the left side of the road broke off during the 1887 earthquake. The tradition further holds that the rock landed on top of an immigrant family camped at the base of the large rock, but it seems unlikely that the smaller rock would have covered all traces of the family (Robert Lenon, oral commun., 1992).
74.5 Red Mountain (elevation 6,350 It) is to the west (fig. 4).
Fig. 4 (above and facing page). Simplified geologic map of part of the Patagonia Mountains showing the field
trip route and locations of STOPS 2 and 3 (modified from Simons. 1974).
Red Mountain overlies a porphyry copper sulfide deposit that is about 5,000 It below the top of the mountain. This deposit was extensively explored by the Kerr-McGee Corporation from 1960 through the late 1970's. The company drilled more than 60 holes, many to depths of about 5,000 ft. They abandoned their unpatented claims in 1992, but they hold about 400 acres of patented claims above the orebody on the west side of Red Mountain (Richard Ahern, oral commun., 1993).
Rock exposed on Red Mountain consists of three Cretaceous through lower Tertiary volcanic sequences that have undergone various degrees of alteration associated with the formation of the porphyry copper deposit. The volcanic sequences dip to the east at about 15º and are cut by porphyritic granitic dikes and small intrusive bodies of Laramide age. Corn (1975) thought the thick sequence of silicic volcanic rocks and underlying porphyritic granitic intrusions might represent a caldera-type subsidence structure.
Simons (1974) described the upper sequence of volcanic rocks as white, light-gray, yellowish-gray, or pale-red, massive, very fine grained to sparsely porphyritic, silicic flow of breccia and tuff. It forms most of the upper part of the mountain and is as thick as 2,400 ft. These rocks locally form cliffs and outcrops that are stained with iron oxide. Alteration to quartz, kaolinite, sericite, and limonite is common. Alteration to alunite and zunyite is locally common. Schrader (1915) reported that the tuff is profusely impregnated with pyrite, chalcopyrite, and chalcocite disseminated in crystals and grains. Drewes (1980) gave the age of the rock as Paleocene(?).
The middle volcanic sequence is andesite and trachyandesite about 3,000 ft. thick that crops out on the flanks of Red Mountain. This sequence was dated at 72 Ma (Simons, 1974). Hornfels bands occur at the base (Quinlan, 1986). Rocks of the lower sequence are chiefly latitic volcanic conglomerate and breccia, and silicified tuff and flows(?) interlayered with and cut by latite sills and dikes (Quinlan, 1986). This sequence is exposed on the south side of Red Mountain in Alum Gulch. It correlates with the Upper Cretaceous silicic volcanics of Simons (1914). Quinlan (1986, p. 294) described the silicate-alteration zoning at Red Mountain. The abstract of his paper is given below:
"'The Red Mountain porphyry copper deposit located in Southeastem Arizona occurs within an altered complex of volcanic and intrusive rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Silicate alteration, sulfide distribution, and assay data have been used to define the deposit. As presently outlined, the deposit is divided into three parts: (1) a small, near-surface chalcocite blanket, (2) a near-classic porphyry copper bulk sulfide deposit, 5,000 ft. below the summit of the mountain and 3,500 ft. below die chalcocite blanket, and (3) a deep-level breccia pipe in the core zone of the bulk sulfide deposit.
At least three major and dlstinct alteration and mineralization pulses are recognized at Red Mountain. Much of the attention at the surface is the result of the supergened modification of a zoned and virtually copper barren hypogene alteration system. Superimposed on the early hypogene system and recognized at depth is a smaller more intense near-classic porphyry copper alteration zone with a partially defined copper-sulfide shell. The brecia pipe occurs within the core area of the shell and represents a later, even more restricted hydrotlhermal event. Silicate and sulfide zoning within the breccia pipe indicates that the pipe itself is a miniature zoned porphyry oopper deposit.
The most obvious clue to the deep-level orebody at Red Mountain is the near-surface chalcocite blanket. The blanket deposit formed by secondary enrichment of copper in a low-grade halo or plume which extended upward from the deep-level deposit to the present surface, or at least 5,000 ft. Pyrite, largely from phyllic zone of the early and virtually copper-barren alteration system, not only provided a favorable host environment in which the blanket could form, but also on oxidation, provided much of the acid needed for the secondary enrichment process."
76.1 End of pavement Junction of Harshaw Road (FR 49) with FR 58. Take FR 49 to the right.
77.0 This was the patented mill site for the American mine. In the 1882 patent survey, the large sycamore tree by the creek on the right side of the road was surveyed in and was described as being about 3 ft. in diameter. In the course of resurveying in 1972, the same tree was identified and had grown to 4 ft. in diameter (Robert Lenon, oral commun., 1992).
78.9 STOP 2. Park along road at Harshaw town site.
HARSHAW TOWN SITE AND CEMETERY
Figure 5. Site plan of Harshaw, Ariz.. showing location of structures and other cultural elements. Plants listed in the botanic survey
are located with reference to features on the site plan. Map by M.M. Farrell and Chris Schrager. U.S. Forest Service.
During 1988, a cultural resources investigation that includes much of the Harshaw town site (figs. 1, 5) was undertaken by the U.S. Forest Service. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate a small land parcel that was proposed for interchange. One of the houses on the parcel, the James Finley House (figs. 5, 7), is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In June 1993, a botanical survey was done to inventory the exotic plants in the vicinity of the town site to see which species have survived since the town was abandoned about 20 years ago. The exotic plants are listed and their locations are keyed to the locations of the structures and cultural features shown in figure 5.
ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND
The land parcel that was investigated is in Hermosa Canyon at its junction with Harshaw Creek and includes both the level canyon bottom and steep adjacent slopes. The elevation ranges from about 4,800 to 4,900 ft. Cottonwood and sycamore trees grow along the stream bed, and oak. mesquite, and juniper on the terraces and slopes. Grasses, prickly pear cactus (Opuntia), and small shrubs form the understory in most of the parcel; dense manzanita thickets occur on slopes in the southern part.
Prehistoric use of the area is poorly known because of the general lack of archaeological information. Prehistoric occupation of the nearby Sonoita Valley has generally been attributed to the Hohokam on the basis of investigations near Sonoita and Patagonia. Occupation of the area in early historic times by Sobaipuri groups was documented in Spanish accounts of Father Kino's time (a Jesuit missionary who worked in southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico, from the mid-1690's until his death in 1711).
Earliest records suggest that there was a small Mexican settlement named Durazno along Harshaw Creek in the vicinity of the Harshaw town site. Durazno, which means peach tree in Spanish, reportedly refers to fruit trees planted by an early Spanish missionary. Historic use of the area has been related primarily to mining ventures. However, neither Spaniards nor Mexicans were able to develop the mining potential of the region because of Apache dominance of the area. After the Gadsden Purchase in 1853, the establishment of Fort Buchanan encouraged mining activity.
Two of the earliest claims in the Harshaw district were the Flux and the Trench, located west of Harshaw. Together these mines produced almost 85 percent of the estimated 1.3 million tons of ore yielded by the mines of the Harshaw district through 1964. These mines were allegedly worked by the Spanish and were rediscovered in 1858. However, most mining activity was suspended at the onset of the Civil War (when Federal troops were withdrawn from the area) until General Howard's peace treaty with the Apache leader Cochise in 1872.
David Tecumseh Harshaw staked several silver claims in the Patagonia Mountains in the 1870's. About 1879, the Hermosa Mining Company acquired one of his properties, the Hermosa Mine. They constructed a lOO-ton, 2O-stamp amalgamation mill (fig. 6) and bad the mine in production by October 1880. The Hermosa Mine and mill became the nucleus for the town of Harshaw. The 1880 census reported some 600 people there, including miners, laborers, merchants, and blacksmiths, with restaurants, lodging houses, saloons, and livery stables (Wilson, 1988). When the population reportedly peaked at about 2,000, the main street was 0.75 mi long (Varney, 1980). Wehrman (1965, p. 30-32) provided a summary of the nationalities and occupations represented in the population, and the Arizona Daily Citizen ran an article in 1880 describing several of the businesses of the town.
The mine closed in late 1881, and a few months later the mill stopped operations. The mill was sold in 1885 and was dismantled and moved to the western part of Pima County (Wehrman, 1965, p. 33-35). In 1890 James Finley of Tucson reopened the Hermosa Mine, installed a small mill, and carried on operations until the price of silver dropped in 1893. All work stopped in 1903 following the death of Mr. Finley and a further decline in the market value of silver. The Harshaw post office was discontinued in 1903 (Wilson, 1988).
In addition to the Hermosa Mine, the Harshaw district included numerous other mines that operated into the 1970's (Wilson, 1988, p. 254). The district reached its peak as a major metal producer between 1930 and 1970, zinc, silver, lead, and gold being the major metals (Wilson, 1988, p. 256-257). By 1939, the American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) had gained control of the Trench, Flux, and other mining properties in the district and constructed a 200-tonlday flotation mill at Trench Camp, located about 1 mi west of Harshaw (fig. 4). Production increased to 50,000-60,000 tons/year of zinc, lead, and copper ore having high silver values (Keith, 1975, p. 12-13).
According to Norman Hale (one of the current residents of the Harshaw town site), this renewed activity at nearby mines once again inspired settlement at Harshaw and several new buildings were constructed, including a church and a school. By the late 1950's, however, the major deposits were becoming depleted of ore and the total output of the district had declined. Since 1965 there has been little or no production (Keith, 1975). In the 1960's the U.S. Forest Service began to remove buildings from the area. Some inhabitants remained at Harshaw. The nomination of the Finley House for the National Register of Historic Places, prepared in 1974, notes that at that time the town had "about 70 inhabitants, many of whom are on welfare." Most of the buildings were removed by the owners or the U.S. Forest Service by the mid-1970's. Usable building material was taken for reuse elsewhere, foundations were bulldozed, and trash was carried out.
The survey of the site consisted of traverses at 10 to 15-m intervals in level areas having a slope less than 25 percent. Steeper areas were surveyed with traverses at 20 to 25-m intervals. Dense brush restricted access in small parts of the survey area; however, ground visibility was good in most of the area. Some of the cultural features identified in this survey are described below; the numbers refer to their locations shown in figure 5. The cultural features were designated U.S. Forest Service site AR03-05-03-133.
Figure 6. Hennosa mill in Harshaw, Ariz., taken about 1880 (photograph reproduced counesy of the Arizona Historical
Society, Tucson, Ariz.; accession number 28130).
3. Hermosa mill site. The mill site is within an amphitheater excavated into a ridge. Three rock walls are built stair-step fashion against the ridge to form part of the millworks foundation. The largest wall is at least 30 ft wide and l0 ft. high. Parts of a stamp and unidentified round metal discs are eroding from the slope adjacent to the walls. A graded road or trail leads from the valley bottom to the site and up to the ridge behind the walls. Much of this trail bas been eroded. To the north there are two flat areas apparently formed from the excavated fill, with a few fragments of broken glass, wire, and wire nails. The Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society archives contain photographs of the mill during construction (1879) and when completed (fig. 6).
6. Mary Hale residence. Plastered adobe walls, hip roof. Two additions, one gabeled, one shed-roofed, both board and batten with poured concrete foundations. Screened shed porch on three sides of house and on one side of gable addition.
7. Small two-story structure. First story is constructed of dressed fieldstone and mortar. Wooden plates at the top of the first story appear to have carried original roof. Upper story is adobe; gable roof is tin. Door and window are framed in wood.
10. Norman Hale residence, constructed of plastered adobe brick. The gable roof is covered with corrugated sheet metal. There is a wood frame shed porch on the southwest side of the building and a concrete retaining wall in front The yard is fenced. Although modified through the years, parts of the structure date to the 1880's (Nonnan Hale, oral commun., 1988).
12. James Finley House (AR03-05-03-07) (fig. 7). The property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places of 1974 because of its architectural and historical significance relating to late nineteenth century mining in the Patagonia Mountains near Harshaw.
Figure 7. The James Finley House, Harshaw. Ariz. This house is on the National Register of Historic Places.
13. Rock alignment, approximately 3 ft long. According to Nonnan Hale, this was the location of an assay office. No artifacts in vicinity.
15. According to Nonnan Hale, this is the site of a two room schoolhouse built in the 1940's. The frame structure was removed in the 1960's, and the cement slab foundation covered over. No other artifacts or features were observed in the vicinity.
20. Location of Catholic Church built in the 1940's. The church was a simple, but attractive building; a photograph of it appears in "Ghosts and Ghost Towns" (Way, 1966). The Hale family has a photograph of the church showing (where the stucco had chipped away) that it was constructed of cut blocks of volcanic tuff. The tuff was probably quarried a mile or two to the east from exposures of thick-bedded biotite rhyolite pumice lapilli tuff. The tuff and associated tuffaceous lacustrine and fluvial sedimentary rocks were mapped by Simons (1974), who reported K-Ar ages on biotite and hornblende ranging from 23 to 26 Ma Minimal foundation remains and a leveled area suggest the building was approximately 45 ft on a side. A small concrete foundation along the east side of the terrace at a cut in the hillside may have been for a small addition or outbuilding.
23. Standing adobe brick structure, depicted in "Arizona's Best Ghost Towns" (Varney, 1980). The original one-room adobe building measures approximately 17x25 ft. Additions have been constructed of adobe, wood, and concrete block. There is a rock-lined well near the northwest corner. The building was vandalized recently: the well pump was stolen and part of the northeast wall was pushed in. The building is owned by Nonnan Hale and straddles the boundary between his private land and the public land administered by the U.S. Forest Service.
24. Cemetery, predominantly Mexican-American. There are some good examples of wrought iron crosses in this cemetery.
25. Cemetery, commonly referred to as the "American cemetery" to distinguish it from the chiefly Mexican-American cemetery north of the town across the road. Headstones date to 1880, 1898, 1911, 1922. 1930, and 1964. In addition, there are at least ten graves marked only by piles of rock. Some of the graves are fenced. One of the graves is that of Nonnan Hale's grandfather, Richard Farrell.
BOTANIC SURVEY OF HARSHAW TOWN SITE
In looking at abandoned or nearly abandoned mining communities, we see that structures and mine workings are not the only evidence of human activity that persists. People in mining camps, as elsewhere. tend to use vegetation around their homes both in a functional way (edible plants), and aesthetically (ornamental species). Many of these plants have persisted or have become established and spread, and are now viewed as permanent. exotic members of Arizona's flora.
Harshaw is in the biotic community of Madrean Evergreen (oak) Woodland bordering on Semidesert Grassland, well represented at Sonoita (Brown, 1982). A variety of oak species, junipers, mesquite, and manzanita shade the grass-covered hills. Annual precipitation is 17.46 in., according to records kept at nearby Patagonia (Sellers and Hill, 1974). About 60 percent of the precipitation falls as rain during the mild summers and 40 percent as rain and not infrequent snow during the winters, which can be cold from time to time. The winter cold, along with a seasonal dry spell from mid-April through late June, is a barrier to the escape and establishment of some ornamental plants.
In preface to discussing persistent and established ornamental plaots that are pIeSent at some former mining communities and not at others, mention needs to be made of species involved, climate, and duration of habitation of the site. For example, finding salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) in Harshaw might be considered unremarkable because it has become an aggressive exotic species in drainages and riparian situations in much of Arizona. However, salt cedar's preferred habitats are at lower elevations, and its occurrence at Harshaw represents its limits for high elevation and winter cold. The same species is well established at the former Arizona mining town of Silver Bell, in northwest Pima County (Wiens, 1991). Abandoned in 1984, the Silver Bell site is lower 1,700 ft) and bas much milder winters than Harshaw.
The plant list indicates that there are a number of exotic plants at the old adobe house (23), but that many of them are not doing very well compared to plants of the same species at other parts of Harshaw town site, particularly those closer to the wash. The advantage of proximity to the wash is obvious. A second factor affecting the health of the plants at the old adobe house is that the structure has been abandoned for about 40 years (Nancy Hale, oral commun., 1993), and, thus, the plants have had no care for that length of time. The Finley House bas been unoccupied for only about 15 years.
Of the species of exotic (non-native) plants persisting or becoming established in Arizona, many were introduced not as ornamentals but as soil binders, as fodder, or as accidental by-products of human activity. Of the non-natives in and around the Harshaw site, many fall into the latter of these categories and are noxious weeds. For example, Bermuda grass (Cynadon dactylon), originally from Africa and currently used ornamentally, was probably accidentally introduced through cattle ranching and thrives in Harshaw along the stream banks. Plants in this category do not appear on the plant list.
The following are exotic plants observed around the town site. excluding the yard of the currently occupied Norman Hale residence (10). The plant locations are keyed to the numbered structures and cultural features shown on figure 5. Unless otherwise noted, plants seem to be original plantings and are not spreading.
Tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) Most abundant of escaped exotics, clumps of this suckering tree can be seen throughout the town site, as well as downstream. This tree is native to China and has been widely planted in urban areas because of its adaptability and resistance to pollution.
Hollyhock (Aleea rosea) One plant in fair condition on the south side of the Finley House (12).
Yellow bird-of-paradise (Caesalpinia gilliesii) Though not seen in the town site, it is abundant along the road just south of the intersection next to the old adobe house (23). It is reproducing by seed.
Trumpet creeper (Campanis radiams) A group of three sprouts doing poorly in the yard of the old adobe house (23). This is a woody vine native to the Eastern United States.
Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) Suckering trees wickedly armed with thorns, scattered along drainages northwest of the Finley House. Possibly reproducing by seed.
Apple (Malus sp.) Six trees: three trees doing fair to poorly, at a structure foundation on the side drainage just northwest of the test unit; two big trees doing very well along the main drainage across the road from the historic trash density (21); and one tree doing poorly in the yard of the old adobe boose (23).
Chinaberry (Melia azedarach) One medium-sized tree growing across the road from the rock retaining walls (22). This Asian native is ao aggressive weed-tree in many situations. Pemaps the cold winters prevent this species from spreading here.
Black mulberry (Monu nigra) Six trees: three doing poorly in the yard of the old adobe boose (23); one doing poorly at the base of the east-facing slope below the cemetery (25); and two doing very well indeed along the road across from the retaining walls (22).
Mountain cottonwood (Populus monticola) Two robust trees by the corral across the road from the Mary Hale residence (6). They were brought as cuttings from Saola Cruz, Sonora, Mexico, 25-30 years ago by Nancy Hale's uncle (Nancy Hale, oral common., 1993). The trees are about 40 ft tall and have trunks 30 in. in diameter.
Peach (Prunus persica) One plant barely haoging on in the yard of the old adobe bouse (23). A plant across the road from the Mary Hale residence (6) appears to be a recent planting.
Apricot (Primus sp.) Six trees: two doing fair in the meadow across the road from the Hale residence (10); one doing very wen near the drainage across the road from the supposed schoolhouse site (15); one in good condition next to the foundation of a structure just northwest of the test unit; one in fair condition where the drainages converge across the road from the church foundation (20); and one doing well at the south end of the rock retaining walls (22).
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) One plant in poor condition, just northwest of the test unit in a grove of trees that surrounds the rock foundation of a structure not designated on the map. Pomegranate is a semitropical tree or shrub native to Asia.
Pear (Pyrus sp.) Five trees: three in fair condition in the meadow across the road from the Mary Hale residence (6); and two large trees in good health just northwest of the Finley House (12).
Rose (Rosa sp.) A depauperate plant in the yard of the adobe bouse (23) and a beautiful specimen by the wash across the road from the retaining walls (22) near the huge mulberry tree. This second plant was probably planted, not escaped.
Bouncing Bet (Saponaria officinalis) Shrubs growing on the south side of the Finley House (12) and minimally escaping into the adjacent wash. This European/Asian native was grown for medicinal and soap-producing aspects. All previously known collections of this plant naturalizing in Arizona have been from the northern third of the state.
Salt Cedar (Tamara ramosissima) One small tree in poor condition under the canopy of the huge mulberry tree across the road from the retaining walls (22). Although the seeds are wind-blown, this tree could have been planted as an ornamental.
Elm (Ulmus sp.) Three small to medium-sized trees, in fair condition, in the yard of the old adobe bouse (23).
Harshaw Coordinates: 31º 28.074' N, 110º 42.468' W
Return to car and continue south on Harshaw Road.
79.7 The adobe ruin on the left was the Hardshell store (Robert Lenon. oral commun., 1992). Ore was discovered in Hardshell Gulcb in 1879 by Jose Andrade and David Harshaw, and the claim was bought in 1880 by Rollin R. Richardson (Granger, 1960). Flux Canyon Road (FR 812), on the rigbt, goes to the Trench and World's Fair Mines (fig. 4). The Trench Mine is one of the oldest mines in Arizona., dating back to the Spanish era, and was the site of Asarco's 200-ton/day flotation mill. The mill was closed around 1956, and ASARCO is currently undertaking remediation work at the site. Of the 40 or so mines in the vicinity of Harshaw, the Flux, Trench, Hardshell, World's Fair, and Hermosa were among the most important. On the basis of the descriptions of the mineralization at these mines given in Schrader (1915) and Tenney (1929), we know the ore deposits were chiefly lead-silver vein deposits associated (1) with a brecciated shear zone in rhyolite and limestone in the case of the Flux Mine, (2) with a fissure vein in diorite intruded by rhyolite at the Trench Mine, (3) with the contact between diorite and intrusive rhyolite at the World's Fair Mine, (4) with a shear zone in rhyolite and interbedded quartzite at the Hardshell Mine. and (5) with a shear or fault breccia zone in an altered, brecciated rhyolite at the Hermosa Mine. Simons' geologic map (1974) shows that these mines are at the southwest edge of a Laramide volcanic pile consisting chiefly of traehyandesite to rhyolite flows (fig. 4). Simons did not recognize any diorite, so the rock termed diorite by Schrader (1915) may be traehyandesite. The outcrop pattern of the rocks shown by Simons, along with mapped faults and the proximity to the northwest-trending Harshaw Creek fault, suggests that the mines are in a northwest-trending shear zone 1-2 mi wide. Of the 20 mines in this area described by Schrader (1915), the mineralized veins trend generally northwest in 13 of them. At Red Mountain to the north, the volcanic pile is underlain by a granitic intrusion capped by a porphyry copper deposit (Quinlan, 1986). It is possible that the mineralization in the vicinity of Harshaw also was related to bydrothermal systems associated with the granitic intrusion beneath Red Mountain, the northwest-trending shear zone acting as the plumbing system for the upward movement of fluids.
80.5 Contact between Cretaceous traehyandesite to the north and Triassic or Jurassic silicic volcanics to the south (fig. 4).
Lipman and Hagstrom (1992) suggested that part of the thick pile of Triassic or Jurassic silicic volcanic rocks in the Patagonia Mountains may be caldera fill on the basis of Simons' (1972) description of these rocks. Simons described sections of rhyolite, tuff and welded tuff several thousand feet thick that contain blocks of sandstone, quartzite, and Paleozoic limestone breccia as much as 0.5 mi long. Lipman and Hagstrom (1992) thought that the tuff and exotic blocks of rock might be caldera-fill megabreccia. The larger blocks are shown on Simons' map (1974).
80.9 Contact between silicic volcanic rocks on the north and a large block of brecciated Paleozoic limestone on the south.
The approximate contact can be traced up the bill to the east for about 0.4 mi, but is nowhere exposed. The lack of exposure of the tuff-limestone contact may indicate that the tuff is not welded adjacent to the limestone. This tends to support the possibility that the limestone block is part of a caldera-fill megabreccia because the megabreccia blocks that collapse into intra-caldera tuff are cold and, thus, prevent the adjacent tuff from welding (Kenneth Hon, U.S. Geological Survey, oral commun., 1992).
81.0 Southern contact of the brecciated limestone block and silicic volcanics.
81.1 We are now in the Patagonia mining district, which takes in the southern part of the Patagonia Mountains south to the international border (see Schrader, 1915, and Tenney, 1929, for descriptions of the Patagonia district).
Schrader (1915) reported that in 1909 Mowry, Washington Camp, and Duquesne were good-sized settlements in the district. having telephone lines and with daily stage and mail service. Both Mowry and Washington Camp had concentrating mills and smelters. Post offices bad been established at Mowry, Lochiel (La Noria), Washington Camp, Duquesne, and Luttrell (Granger, 1960).
The field trip route is through the eastern part of the Patagonia district (fig. 4). The rocks here consist of an eastern belt that includes exposures of Precambrian crystalline rocks overlain by Cambrian sedimentary rocks south of the Mowry mine; Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks; Triassic or Jurassic silicic igneous rocks including plugs, dikes, and volcanic rocks; and the Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Formation. The Harshaw Creek fault cuts diagonally through the eastern belt.
The western belt is a large intrusive body of biotite-hornblende granodiorite composition dated at 58 Ma (Simons, 1914; Drewes, 1980). A small stock of porpbyritic biotite granodiorite in the vicinity of Washington Camp probably was emplaced at the same time.
The mineral deposits of the Patagonia district are mostly silver and lead with some copper and occur as veins and as contact metamorphic deposits. Some of the mineral deposits are spatially and probably genetically related to the granodiorite intrusions. Others, bowever, farther removed from the Tertiary intrusive contacts, may be genetically related to the volcanism and hydrothermal systems associated with the proposed Triassic or Jurassic caldera.
81.2 Cross Harshaw Creek fault (fig. 4). We will be traveling over exposures of the Bisbee Formation for the next 1.9 mi. Simons (1912) described the Bisbee here as siltstone and mudstone with intercalations of limestone, sandstone, epiclastic volcanic sandstone and siltstone, and conglomerate. He estimated that the total thickness is more than 3,000 ft and noted that the Bisbee in the Patagonia Mountains contains considerably more volcamc material than elsewhere, chiefly in the form of reworked volcamc ash in the matrix of the clastic rocks.
We are familiar with tales of the violence and murder that were apparently commonplace in the early days of mining camps. This antisocial behavior has had a veil of romanticism thrown over it by the distance of time and by the Hollywood renditions of some of these Old West tales. An act of violence that took place near here in the waning days of a mining camp seems prosaic by comparison. A German named Herman Bender who owned a store nearby was murdered around 1942 by his two compaoions as they were returning from an evening of drinking. The murderers threw his body down the shaft of the Blue Nose Mine about a quarter of a mile up the hill to the right (Robert Lenon, oral commun., 1992).
82.4 The Morning Glory Mine, which is about 0.5 mi. up the small valley on the right, produced high-sulfide silver-copper-zinc ore.
During the rainy season, sulfate-rich water from the Morning Glory Mine flows down the valley and mixes with the stream on the left side of the road, which drains carbonate bedrock on American Peak to the east (the headwaters of Harshaw Creek). At the confluence of the two streams, a soapy gray-white precipitate forms and white froth is rafted along the stream surface (Robert
Lenon, oral commun., 1992). X-ray diffraction analysis confirms Lenon's suggestion that precipitate and froth are gypsum.
83.1 Guajolote (turkey) Flat Road to the right. 'The flat was named for the Guajolote Mine, located in the 1860's. Continue straight on the Harshaw and Lochiel Road.
83.8 Mowry Road (FR 214) on the left.
84.5 On the right, between the road and the wash, was the site of the smelter for the Mowry mine and of a village named Commission. Fifteen houses were reported to be here in 1864 (Granger, 1960), and Allison's store was here in about 1886 (Robert Lenon, written commun., 1992).
84.8 Along the creek on the left side of the road is a small-scale placer mining area. There is enough water in the creek at times for panning. Schrader (1915) said of this area, '''The production is small, as the deposits are worked only when in need of money. The average earnings are about 15 cents a day for each man... The deposits at this place seem to be about five feet thick. The known production in 1909 was two ounces of gold. In 1906, when, after the closing of the Mowry Mine, many unemployed men were in the country, the production was about $200." Butler (1937) reported that in the summer of 1933, when water was scarce, five men were carrying on rocking operations and earning less than SO cents a day. (Recalculated at a gold price of $350 per oz, this is about $9 a day-still not very good wages.) One 2oz nugget and several smaller nuggets bad been found, but most gold was small angular particles.
86.3 View of San Rafael Valley.
The Santa Cruz River has its headwaters in this valley, flows south into Mexico, then turns back north and reenters Arizona east of Nogales (fig. 1). On the west side of the road about 1.5 mi north of the International Border there is a monument to Fray Marcos de Niza, constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1939. The inscription reads, "By this valley of San Rafael Fray Marcos de Niza, vice-commissary of the Franciscan order and delegate of the Viceroy in Mexico, entered Arizona, the first European west of the Rockies, April 12, 1539."
87.5 The mountain to the right topped by the light-gray marble outcrop was given the name "El Caloso" in the Spanish land grant surveys of the San Rafael Valley prior to 1830 (Robert Lenon, oral commun., 1992). Now it is called Lime Peak.
87.7 Junction with road to Nogales. Continue straight on FR61.
88.1 Site of Washington Camp (fig. 4).
In 1889 George Westinghouse of the Westinghouse Electric Company came into the area and began acquiring properties, developing mines, and building various processing facilities. In 1910 the Duquesne Mining and Reduction Company, which was organized by Westinghouse, built housing and a reduction plant at Washington Camp (fig. 8). Earlier, this had been the site of the plant and mill of the Pride of the West Mining and Smelting Company. The company headquarters was 1 mi to the south at Duquesne, near the Bonanza Mine. Each town bad a population of about 1,000. Both places have been ghost towns since the 1950's, but there was a store here as late as the early 1950's. The green stucco house on the left was the site of the Wonder Bar until about 1980 (Mara Grodzicki, local resident, oral commun. 1992).
The present residents of Washington Camp number about 20, and a large percentage of them are retirees. One resident, Refugio Granillo, who was born in Washington Camp in 1913, claims to have worked in every mine in the Washington-Duquesne area (there are about 20). The Majalca family lives on the west side of the road; Manuel Majalca was foreman at the Indiana Mine in 1913 during the Simplot-Rosario exploration program.
Not all of the residents of Washington Camp, however, have been sympathetic to the needs of mining. Under the headline "Armed Woman Keeps Miners From Work" the Arizona Daily Star reported the following story on September 9, 1969:
"Mining explorations by J.R. Simplot Co. were halted yesterday by a woman determined to keep unauthorized people and cattle off her property (at Washington Camp) 18 miles south of Patagonia.
Mrs. Rose Bagley smilingly greeted all miners who tried to use the road across her property with, 'Sorry, no mining today, fellow. Her gentle persuasiveness was reinforced by presence of a black dog and a double-barreled shotgun at her sideas she reclined on an old chaise lounge a few feet from her gate.
She is under court order to keep the road open to all bona fide employees, but yesterday she turned away 15 men when they could not prove that they were employed by J.R. Simplot Co., which is conducting mining explorations around her property."
88.4 Take the Duquesne Road (FR 128) to the right. As you drive up the bill, the A-frame bouse that can be seen in the valley on the left is near the site of the former Washington school.
88.9 Bonanza Mine on the right (fig. 9).
The adobe structure was a power house. Ore was taken from the mine to the Washington Camp smelter by a 3,000 ft. aerial tramway. Ore was dumped from the ore buckets into large chutes, then fed into the smelter. The old power house was used for core storage during the Simplot and Rosario exploration program in the late 1960's and early 1970's.
Note the extent of the deforestation at Washington Camp-Duquesne in the early 1900's, sbown in figures 8 and 9. The trees were cut probably both for mine timbers and for charcoal. The recovery of the oak-juniper forest in the past 10 years is remarkable and encouraging.
89.1 STOP 3. Duquesne town site (fig. 1). Park along the side of the road. (* The Duquesne area [800+ acres] including the old townsite/power house is all privately owned. The mines and buildings are not open to exploration. All the old core samples have been removed from the power house and it is being renovated into a home. The miners cabin has already been renovated.)